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网友点评-A retrogenes proximal to TRIM5 across primates, we locate two more-线缆测高仪,超声波测高仪, 手持式测高仪-上海交通大学科技园上海野豹企业发展公司
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发布于:2018-9-6 00:57:45  访问:125 次 回复: 篇
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A retrogenes proximal to TRIM5 across primates, we locate two more
Our study highlights the utility of antiviral gene evolution for the study of paleovirology (1, two).PNAS PLUSAHuman/Chimp TRIM5 locus TRIM22 TRIM5 TRIMP1 TRIM34 TRIMRhesus TRIM5 locus TRIM22 TRIM20 kbTRIMPTRIMTRIMCypA2 CypA3 ( 1Kb) ( 14Kb)CypA4 ( 99Kb) CypA2 + + -B43 myaLoss of CypA3 18 mya?Saddle-back Tamarin Pygmy Marmoset Colobus Silvery Leaf Langur Francois‘ Leaf LangurCypA3 ?? + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + -CypA4 + + + + + + + + + + + + + -CypA3 Quit Cease Cease Quit Quit Cease Quit Quit Cease Cease Quit Quit Stop Stop Quit Cease Stop Fs Fs FsACy p6 myaSouthern Pig-tailed Macaque Lion-tailed Macaque Celebes Crested Macaque Stump-tailed Macaque Crab-eating Macaque Rhesus Macaque Vervet Monkey Patas Monkey Talapoin De Brazza‘s Monkey White-cheeked Gibbon Agile Gibbon Island Siamang Gibbon Orangutan?or20 mya32 mya Loss of CypACy p AA2 three pA Cy p CyGorilla Human Bonobo ChimpFig. 1. Summary of CypA retrogenes proximal to TRIM5. (A) Relative locations in the CypA retrogenes are displayed below the representations from the TRIM5 locus. CypA2 (light gray arrow), CypA3 (light blue arrow), and CypA4 (white arrow) retrogenes are 1 kb, 14 kb, and 99 kb downstream of TRIM5, Myricetin 529-44-2 respectively. The rhesus macaque TRIMP1 area consists of an further 20 kb not present within the human and chimpanzee TRIMP1. (B) Panel of primates investigated by PCR PubMed ID:https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24876777 for CypA2, CypA3, and PubMed ID:https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28480357 CypA4 is shown inside the phylogeny with all the notation of retrogene presence or absence indicated to the appropriate. The plus (+) symbol indicates the presence of the CypA retrogene. The minus (-) symbol indicates the absence of the CypA retrogene. Arrows with labels (CypA2, CypA3, Loss of CypA3, and CypA4) indicate the point at which the retrogene was acquired or lost in primate evolution. In our analysis, we recovered CypA2 from southern pig-tailed and lion-tailed macaques. Nevertheless, offered Oleandrin purchase earlier reports of the origin and spread of CypA2 (28), we could place the date of its acquisition at the root in the macaque lineage. CypA3 sequences, together with pseudogenizing mutations, are represented for all those primates found to encode the retrogene. Quit and Fs denote a cease codon along with a frameshift mutation in the CypA3 se.A retrogenes proximal to TRIM5 across primates, we find two more at present pseudogenized CypA retrogenes that inserted downstream of the TRIM5 gene 18?three Mya in primate evolution. A single of these (which we refer to as CypA3 in maintaining with prior nomenclature) is still expressed as a novel TRIMCyp gene fusion transcript in various Old Planet monkeys. Our phylogenetic analyses date the origin of CypA3 to 43 Mya and discover that TRIMCypA3 was maintained as an intact gene for no less than 10 My, generating it probably the most ancient TRIMCyp yet identified in primates. Despite the fact that CypA3 is decayed in all extant primates and the resulting TRIMCyp gene fusion is defective, our evolutionary reconstruction and virological assays recommend that TRIMCypA3 encoded broad and potent restriction activity following its birth. Our findings reveal that convergent evolution has led to at the very least four independent CypA retrogene insertions proximal to TRIM5 and, consequently, the formation of TRIMCyp at the very least 3 independent times in primate history. This additional reflects the intense, recurrent pressure imposed by ancient viruses.
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